Category Archives: History

Signposting Hypocrisy

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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Signposting Hypocrisy

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Worship in secret is from the strongest means of maintaining steadfastness in Deen, yet few appreciate its effects; for if (voluntary) acts of ‘ibadah are done in secret, they become farther from showing off or seeking fame, and reflect honesty and sincerity.

A man came to Hudayfah (Ibn Yaman), and said:

إني أخشى أن أكون منافقاً فقال له: تصلي إذا خلوت، وتستغفر إذا أذنبت؟ قال: نعم قال: إذهب فما جعلك الله منافقاً

“I fear that I’ve become a hypocrite”. Hudayfah asked him, “Do you perform salah when you’re alone and do you make istighfar when you sin?” The man replied, “Yes”. Hudayfah then said, “Leave, may Allah not make you from the hypocrites.”  [1]

Hudayfah رضي الله عنه was the keeper of secrets of the Prophet ﷺ and was entrusted with the names of the munafiqeen of Madinah. After the passing of the Prophet ﷺ, people used to come to him and ask whether they were mentioned to be among the hypocrites. And he would refuse to divulge any information.

He would however, provide important indicators as to how to recognise hypocrisy within yourself should these traits be present. One was whether you performed salah while being alone, and away from prying public eyes. Other was being conscious and constant in seeking forgiveness upon committing a sin.

Recognising and working to develop one’s personal relationship with Allah ﷻ‎ is in itself, a blessing far removed from fakery or haughtiness for it necessitates Muhasibah (self-reflection and accounting). Al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyyad رحمه الله said:

المؤمن يحاسب نفسه، ويعلم أن له موقفاً بين يدي الله تعالى، والمنافق يغفل عن نفسه، فرحم الله عبداً نظر لنفسه قبل نزول ملك الموت به

“The believer (is introspective and) takes stock of himself, and he knows that his stands between the Hands of Allah. While the hypocrite overlooks (and forgets) himself. May Allah have mercy on a slave who pays attention to himself (and takes heed) before the Angel of Death descends to him.” [2]

Introspection can’t fully take place until a person takes a quiet corner away from people, worshiping and repenting and taking matters back to Allah ﷻ‎. It also protects a person from complaining to others besides Allah. Shaykh ‘Abd Al-Azeez At-Tarifi حفظه الله said:

عبادة السر والخلوة هي السياج الذي يضعه الإنسان حول قلبه من الانتكاسات! لا يشكو أحد ضعفا إلا وخلوته بربه نادرة لذا كان زاد النبي ﷺ خلوة الليل

“Worship in secret and solitude plants a fence around the human heart from relapsing (and setbacks!) None should complain about their weakness (and vulnerability) except when alone with his Rabb. The Prophet ﷺ increased his retreat (to Allah) during the night (prayers).” [3]

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May Allah purify us from any aspect of hypocrisy and grant us istiqamah and thabat upon His Deen. Ameen.

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References:

[1] Tareekh Dimishq, 66616

[2] Tareekh Dimishq, 52351

[3] سطور: من النقل والعقل والفكر 60


Rising Above Ranks

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

The Qur’an is Al-Adheem, Al-Kareem, Al-Majeed. It is Shifa’ and a source of immeasurable contentment. We often approach it with awe and a sense of huge responsibility towards it; wishing to read it to completion speedily and as often as we can. Such was also the case among some of our righteous predecessors.

‏كان أبو العباس بن عطاء يختم القرآن كثيرا إلا أنه جعل له ختمة يستنبط منها معاني القرآن فبقي بضع عشرة سنة، فمات قبل أن يختمها

Abu’l-Abbas bin Ata’ [d. 309H] used to complete (recitation of) the Qur’an often, but then Allah made him read the whole Qur’an with (the privilege of understanding and deducing) the meanings of the Qur’an. He remained at it for ten years, and he died before he could finish and conclude it.❞  [Hilyat al-Awliya’, 10/302]

The general folk often suffice with reading the Qur’an for purpose of barakah (blessing) alone. Yet it is those who have a loftier intent of seeking its guidance, wanting to understand its meanings to apply in their lives and get closer to the One who Revealed it – who are truly privileged and rise above the ranks of the ordinary.

Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah (d.198H) said:

إنما آيات القرآن خزائن فإذا دخلْتَ خزانةً فاجتهد أن لا تخرج منها حتى تعرف ما فيها

Indeed Ayât of the Qur’an are treasures, so when you enter upon the treasure strive (to ensure) you do not leave them until you know what is in them.

Allah’s Love is achieved through capturing His Words with purpose of applying their objectives in our lives. Ibn Rajab said in ‘Majmu’ al-Rasa’il, 4/87:

أعظم ما تحصل به محبة الله من النوافل: تلاوة القرآن، وخصوصا مع التدبر

“(From the) greatest means in attaining the love of Allah is through voluntary reading the Qur’an, with particular focus on contemplation and (paying) deep attention to what its message is instructing.”

Ibn al-Qayyim said in his, ‘Al-Fawa’id, “If you want to take advantage of the Qur’an, then have an acute focus when reading and listening with your heart. You will find it like someone who is being spoken to by Allah for it is the Word of Allah spoken to you through His Messenger.”

Having tadabbur of the Qur’an must contain the  objective to take advantage and follows what it contains, for the purpose of reading and reflecting upon it means to practice and hold on to what it implies. Ibn Katheer mentioned in his commentary  on Ayah that Al-Hasan al-Basri said:

والله ما تدبره بحفظ حروفه وإضاعة حدوده، حتى إن أحدهم ليقول: قرأت القرآن كله ما يرى له القرآن في خلق ولا عمل

“By Allah! Tadabbur of the Qur’an does not mean to (just read and) memorise the letters or to waste (and ignore its legal rulings and) its boundaries. I’ve even heard someone say, ‘I have read the Qur’an entirely’, but its effects do not appear in his manners and morals, nor in their deeds’.”

Shaykh Abd Al-Rahman Habanakah asserted that the purpose of tadabbur is not merely the luxury of knowing, or for a proud (shallow) achievement of having knowledge – or a reason to express the meaning for the sake of boasting. Rather the aim of contemplation and understanding is to remind and extract lessons for practical implementation. Such lessons will not tangibly benefit except the ‘ulul albaab’ (i.e. people with intellects and cognitive minds).

In framing a closer relationship with the Qur’an, Dr Muhammad al-Rabee’ah mentioned some practical steps:

‏من أعظم الطرق للتخلق بالقرآن
أن تقرأه فتستخلص منه القواعد والأخلاق والسنن الثابتة وتمارسها في حياتك وتعاملاتك مع الناس

One of the greatest ways to develop (and establish) the Qur’an (in your lives) is to read it and infer (from it) rules of akhlaq (etiquette) and the sunan (i.e. the pathways) it establishes, and exercise them in your life and in the way you deal with people.”

Ibn Taymiyyah said, “Whoever makes tadabbur of the Qur’an in order to gain instructions (and guidance) from him, the way of truth will become clear to him.” And indeed this is the end goal for us all, to be guided by Allah and to seek His Pleasure in all that we do.

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May Allah ﷻ‎ make Al-Qur’an the delight of our hearts, the light of our chests, the remover of anxiety and the pacifier of grief. Ameen.

 


Al-Baqillani in Constantinople

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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An Example of Wit and Wisdom in Articulation

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[The following discourse of Imam Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (rahimahullah) and the Roman King of Constantinople, is found in Al-Khateeb’s ‘Tareekh al-Baghdad’, 5/379]:

 

“The King of Iraq (named ‘Adud al-Dawla) chose and sent them to Constantinople in 371H, some of the senior scholars of his time to debate with the City’s Christians. When the King of the Romans heard of the arrival of Abu Bakr al-Baqillani, he ordered his servicemen to reduce the height of the door entrance so that as Al-Baqillani enters, he would have to lower his head and his body by kneeling before the King of the Romans and his entourage.

 

Abu Bakr understood this trickery and so he turned his body backwards and knelt down to entered the door, walking backwards making directing his backside to the King of the Romans rather than his face! By this, the King learned that this imam was astutely shrewd.

 

Abu Bakr entered and he was not unaware of the manners in acknowledging the People of the Book, so he turned to an elder Monk and (making small talk) asked him, ‘How are you and how are you parents and children?’ The King of the Romans was angered by this question and, ‘Don’t you know that Monks do not marry nor have children!?’

 

Abu Bakr said, ‘Allah is the greatest! Monks are prohibited to marry and bear children and yet you accuse your Lord of marrying Mary and fathering Jesus!?’ The anger of the King only increased by this.

 

Then the King said rudely, ‘(Isn’t) what you said what A’ishah did!?’

Abu Bakr said, ‘If A’ishah has been accused (as was the case by the hypocrites), then Mary has also been accused similarly (by the Jews). Yet both are pure, but A’ishah was married and did not have children, while Mary gave birth without marriage! Whom would be the first to be falsely accused, may Allah bless them both.’

 

The King ran amok! And then asked, ‘Did your Prophet go to battles?’

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes’.

The King asked, ‘Was he fighting from the front?’

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes’.

The King asked, ‘Did he win?’

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes’.

 

The King asked, ‘Has he been defeated (in some battles)?’

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes’.

The King explaimed gleefully, ‘Amazing! He was a Prophet and yet he was defeated?’

Abu Bakr responded, ‘He’s you Lord (i.e. Jesus) and yet he was crucified!?’

 

We’re amazed at their kufr.


Pulse on the Ground

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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Pulse on the Ground

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‘Ikrimah, the mawla of Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه and one of the leading authorities in Tafseer, once travelled to Basra. And he recalls an incident while out walking:

إني لأخرج إلى السوق فأسمع الرجل يتكلم بالكلمة فينفتح لي خمسون بابا من العلم

“I went out to the marketplace and (over)heard a man speak some words. (These words) opened for me fifty (different) doors of knowledge.” [1]

‘Ikrimah was a scholar of Qur’an par excellence, and he was also known for profound fiqh as well as knowledge of seerah. Many of his contemporaries and those who came after him , praised him highly mentioning him with specialties – see ‘Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’.

It was a distinct quality and an intrinsic value of our astute Imams, scholars, teachers and indeed tulabul ‘ilm that they observed society around them and kept their pulse on the ground. They were informed and listened to the kalam in the streets – by which they would extract from it, information and benefit that widened their scope of thinking. This also enabled them to grapple with finding solutions for many challenges communities face.

As constituents of society, we interact with all types of people from all walks of life. We may see a person or hear a word that may positively alter the way we see something – or it may open up for us, avenues in reassessing an area of benefit or harm. We beseech Allah grant us insight and acute sense of visual perception and spiritual insight into the decisions we make. Ameen.

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References:

[1] Al-Mizzi, ‘Tahdheeb al-Kamal’, 6/405


Legacy of Light

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحـمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آلـه وصحبه ومن والاه

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Isma’eel ibn Ziyad said:

مَرَّ عَلِيٌّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَلَى الْمَسَاجِدِ ، وَفِيهَا الْقَنَادِيلُ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ ، فَقَالَ : نَوَّرَ اللَّهُ عَلَى عُمَرَ قَبْرَهُ كَمَا نَوَّرَ عَلَيْنَا مَسَاجِدَنَا

“Ali رضي الله عنه passed by some masajid in Ramadan, and they had lamps inside. He said, ‘may Allah fill Umar’s grave with light, just as he filled our masajid with light.’

[Ibn Abd-Al Barr, ‘Al-Tamheed’, 1303]

‘Umar رضي الله عنه was an entrepreneur par excellence, and a highly skilled administrator who revolutionised infrastructure in some of the most important areas of public life during his leadership. With his ingenuity, he put in place personnel and processes that worked for the welfare of the Ummah and brought ease to the masses.

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ۙ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

“Allah has promised those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, that for them there is forgiveness and a great reward.” [Al Maa’idah, 9]

 

When talking about the amazing qualities of Umar رضي الله عنه we rarely pay attention to the things that made him the person he was. His thought and strategy was nuanced, primarily by the social and economic environment he had to shape. As individuals, we all have great potential to positively contribute within our own spheres of influence, private or public. We need to pay attention to detail when studying the successes of our illustrious predecessors in subsuming some of their successes and legacy.

May Allah make their lives an inspiration for us all in our own roles, no matter how insignificant we might see them to be. Ameen.

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Of Deeds and Lineage

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه

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Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

من أبطأ به عمله لم يسرع به نسبه

“Whoever is delayed (slowed/pulled down) by his own deeds, will not be hastened (pulled up) by his lineage.”

[Abu Daw’ud, 3643; Ibn Maajah, 185 (see also Tirmidhi, 2945) – graded as saheeh by  and al-Albani in ‘Saheeh al-Jaami’, 5715 and 6577]

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Ibn Rajab said in his valuable ‘Jaami’ al-Uloom wal-Hikam’ that the deeds of a slave will be of various levels in the Hereafter, as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى Said:

وَلِكُلٍّ دَرَجَاتٌ مِّمَّا عَمِلُوا

“For all there will be degrees (or ranks) according to what they did.” [Al-Anaam, 132]

And whoever delays his deeds, is diminishing his rank (and opportunity) in attaining higher and elevated position with Allaah. His lineage does not hasten (or help him) in his attainment of the (higher) rank, for Allaah has arranged these ranks and degrees based upon one’s deeds and not on lineage (or genealogy). Allaah سبحانه و تعالى Said:

فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ

“Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.” [Al-Mu’minoon, 101]

Allaah has enjoined upon us to hasten towards His Forgiveness and Mercy through our actions; as He Said:

وَسَارِعُوا إِلَىٰ مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِي

“And march forth (hasten) towards the forgiveness from your Rabb, and for Paradise as wide as the heavens and the earth, prepared for the Muttaqoon.” [Al-Mu’minoon, 133]

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And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has provided us with profound examples from the lives of the Prophets, where some of their family members were not sufficed with their ties and noble lineage with the Prophets. Ibraheem’s father did not benefit from his relationship with his son and was of the losers – see Saheeh al-Bukhari, 3350

Nooh عليه السلام did not benefit his son when he called out:

رَبِّ إِنَّ ابْنِي مِنْ أَهْلِي

“O my Rabb! Verily, my son is of my family…” [Hud, 46]

Allaah سبحانه و تعالى responded:

يَا نُوحُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ ۖ إِنَّهُ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صَالِحٍ ۖ فَلَا تَسْأَلْنِ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۖ إِنِّي أَعِظُكَ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِي

“O Nooh! Surely, he is not of your family; verily, his work is unrighteous, so ask not of Me that of which you have no knowledge. I admonish you lest you should be one of the ignorant.” [Hud, 47]

(See also At-Tahreem, 10)

 

Righteousness is something that should be inherited from parents and kindred. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى did not consider the relationship between two of the greatest Prophet kings. It was narrated that Da’wud عليه السلام said:

إلهي كن لسليمان كما كنت لي  فأوحى الله عز وجل إليه: أن قل لسليمان أن يكون لي كما كنت لي أكن له كما كنت لك
“My illah, be to my son Sulayman, as you were to me”. So Allaah عز وجل inspired to him that: “Tell Sulayman to be for me as you were to me, and surely I will be to him as I were to you.” [Tareekh ad-Dimashq 22/238; Tafseer ibn Katheer 7/73; Bustaan al-‘Arifeen of an-Nawawi, p.45; Manhaj al-Tarbiyah al-Nabawiyah lil-Tifl, p.33]

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When the ayah: وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِي  “And warn your nearest kinsmen” [Ash-Shu’ara’, 214] was revealed, the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم gathered Al-Quraysh and he addressed them both in general and specific terms, he said:

يا معشر قريش , اشتروا أنفسكم من الله , لا أغني عنكم من الله شيئاً , يا صفيّة عمّة رسول الله , لا أغني عنك من الله شيئاً , يا فاطمة بنت محمد سليني من مالي ما شئت لا أغني عنك من الله شيئاً

“O assembly of Quraysh, save yourselves from (the punishment) of Allaah, I cannot do anything for you (to protect you from Allaah). O Saffiyah the (paternal) aunt of the Messenger of Allaah, I do not have anything (with which to protect you) from Allah. O Fatimah bint Muhammad, Ask me of what I have of wealth anything you wish; I do not have anything (with which to protect you) from Allah.”  [see also Saheeh al-Bukhari, 2753 and 4771]

And he صلى الله عليه وسلم is also reported to have said:

يا بني هاشم , لا يأتيني الناس بأعمالهم وتأتوني بأنسابكم

“O Bani Hashim, do not come to me (on the Day of Judgement) without (righteous) deeds because of your lineage (to me).” [‘Ahkam al-Qur’an al-Jasaas’]

Linguistically the word ‘Aal’ is not confined to mean the immediate family of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, scholars explain that it incorporates relations of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and all his true followers and supporters from the ummah until the Last Day – be he a foreigner from among them or an Arab. The usage of the word ‘Aal’ is also precedented in the Qur’an, for example:

النَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَعَشِيًّا ۖ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُوا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ

“The Fire, they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon. And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the Angels): “Cause Fir’awn’s Aal to enter the severest torment!” [Al-Ghafir, 46]

And this obviously excludes the wife of Fir’awn, who was a pious believer and described as one of the best four women from mankind.

In regards to the family of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, it is reported that Al-Hasan ibn Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (the great grandson of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم) said to a person from the Rafidah Shi’a:

“Love us, but if we disobey Allaah, then hate us; for if Allaah was going to benefit anyone because of his relation to the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم without obedience (to Allaah), He would have benefited the mother and father (of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم).”  [Al-Dhahabi, ‘Siyar A’laam An-Nubala’, 4/486 – see also Saheeh Muslim 203 and its respective commentary for further details]

Allaah سبحانه و تعالى Said:

وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلْإِنسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَ

“And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or bad).” [An-Najm, 39]

Allaah سبحانه و تعالى also Said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَاخْشَوْا يَوْمًا لَّا يَجْزِي وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِ وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَن وَالِدِهِ شَيْئًا

“O mankind! Be afraid of your Rabb, and fear a Day when no father can avail aught for his son, nor a son avail aught for his father…” [Luqman, 33]

Allaah سبحانه و تعالى also Said:

إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

“Verily, the most honourable of you with Allaah is the (believer) who has At-Taqwa.” [Al-Hujurat, 13]

(See also Al-Ma’arij, 10-15 and Abasa, 34-37 and others)

These narrations and Ayaat are exhortations to believe and to do good deeds, and not to rely on one’s kinship, however noble, virtuous and honourable it may be. Thus, the one who indulges in bad deeds and delays (is negligent) in performing good deeds, any honour of his lineage will not benefit him in the Hereafter in raising of his rank and status… He who fails in his deeds, his lineage will do nothing to bring him closer to the mercy of his Rabb.

The Ahl al-Bayt are loved and honoured because of their love and allegiance to the truth, supporting and implementing the guidance of Allaah and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم. If any of them believe and act contrary to this, then they forfeit this honour and respect in the eyes of the ummah.

Allah knows best.


What was it about Zahir?

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه

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Anas bin Malik رضي الله عنه narrated that:

أن رجلا من أهل البادية كان اسمه زاهر بن حزام أو حرام ، قال : وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يحبه وكان دميما ، فأتاه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يوما وهو يبيع متاعه ، فاحتضنه من خلفه وهو لا يبصره ، فقال : أرسلني ! من هذا ؟ فالتفت فعرف النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فجعل لا يألو ما ألزق ظهره بصدر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حين عرفه ، وجعل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : من يشتري العبد ، فقال : يا رسول الله ! إذا والله تجدني كاسدا ، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : لكن عند الله لست بكاسد ، أو قال : لكن عند الله أنت غال

“There was a man from the people of the desert whose name was Zahir bin Hizam (or bin Haram). And he was loved by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم – He was (also) not of a pleasant (facial) appearance. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came to him one day, while he (Zahir) was selling his goods (in the market) and embraced him (from behind) so that he (Zahir) could not see who it was [nb. in another narration he صلى الله عليه وسلم placed his hands over his eyes to stop him from looking behind]. Zahir asked: ‘Tell me, who is this?’, he turned and found it was the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, so he continued to rub his back (and cling) onto the chest * (of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم). Upon this, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (held him and) said (in jest to those around him): ‘Who would like to buy a slave (from me)’? He (Zahir) said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, by Allaah you will find me to be a poor sell (i.e. I’ll be of no value)’. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘But with Allaah you are not unsellable?’ [in another narration ‘But with Allaah you are valuable’].”

[Al-Bayhaqi, ‘Sunan al-Kubra’, 10/248 [found in Musnad Ahmad, Musnad Abi Ya’la and Bazzar with slight variations] – graded as saheeh by Ibn Katheer in ‘Al-Bidaayah’, 6/48; Ibn Hajar in ‘Al-Isaabah’, 1/542; Al-Haythami in ‘Majma az-Zawa’id’, 9/371 (#15979) and al-Albani in ‘Takhreej Mishkat al-Masabih’, 4815 (see also ‘Mukhtasar Shama’il’, 204)]

* (This gesture of rubbing his back with the body of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was due to the barakah he hoped to attain).

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So what was it about Zahir رضي الله عنه that made him loved by Allaah and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم?

There is little known about him from the books of history and biographies… What is known is that he was a simple man from the desert, and whenever he came to Madinah, he would bring gifts for the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and would be looked after by him صلى الله عليه وسلم. He also partook in some of the battles along with the Muslims.

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم would say: إن زاهرا باديتنا ، و نحن حاضروه – “Zahir is our man of the desert, and we are his attendees (in town).” [see ‘Saheeh al-Jaami’, 2087]