Giving up Argumentation

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه، أما بعـد

.
Allaah سبحانه و تعالى Said in Al-Qur’an:

وَلاَ تَنَازَعُواْ فَتَفْشَلُواْ وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُواْ

“Do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage (and your strength departs), and be patient…” [Al-Anfaal: 46]

.

Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shanqeeti رحمه الله تعالى said in his Tafseer:

نهى الله جل وعلا المؤمنين في هذه الآية الكريمة عن التنازع، مبينًا أنه سبب الفشل، وذهاب القوة، ونهى عن الفرقة أيضًا في مواضع أخر، كقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلاَ تَفَرَّقُواْ‏}‏، ونحوها من الآيات، وقوله في هذه الآية‏:‏ ‏{‏وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ‏}‏ أي قوتكم‏

“In this Noble Ayah, Allaah جل وعلا has forbidden the believers from disputing (arguing and fighting), indicating this as a cause for failure (and defeat) and the departure of strength. And He also forbade disunity (and division)… As He Said: “And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves” and similar Ayaat to this. And the Words in the Ayah, ‘lest you lose courage’ means (loss of) your strength.”

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

ما ضل قوم بعد هدى كانوا عليه إلا أوتوا الجدل

“No people fall into misguidance after having been guided except when they are given to constant dispute (among themselves).” [Sunan Tirmidhi, 3253, who graded it as hasan saheeh – graded as hasan by al-Mundiri, Ibn Hajar and others (see ‘Saheeh al-Jaami’, 5633)]

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

إن أبغض الرجال إلى الله الألد الخصم

“The most hated of men to Allah is the one who quarrels often.” [Bukhari, 2457 and Muslim, 2668]

Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan commented on this hadeeth in his ‘Sharh Usool Al-Imaan’ (of Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab) and said:

في هذا حديث النهي عن الجدل والخصومات, وأنه ينبغي على المسلم إرادة الحق, لا التغلُب بحجته و إن كانت باطلة كما هو حال أهل الضلال.
وقوله (صلى الله علية وسلم): “الألد” أي: شديد الخصومة بالباطل.
وقوله: “الخصم” أي: الحاذق بالخصومة والمذموم هو الخصومة بالباطل في رفع حق ا واثبات باطل.
والله جلَ وعلا يبغض الألدَ الخصم, لأنه ليس قصده الحق وإنما حب ظهور الحجة بالخصومة ولو بالباطل, ولأن كثرة المخاصمة تفضي غالبا إلى ما يذمُ صاحبه, لأن أكثر المخاصمة تكون في باطل من أحد الطرفين, و لهذا جاء النهي عنها

“In this hadeeth is the prohibition of argumentation and quarrel, and that it is incumbent upon the Muslim to only seek the truth, not to overcome (his opponent) by his argument even though it is falsehood, as is the case of the people of misguidance.

And he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Al-Aladd’, which means one who unjustly (and excessively) quarrels with falsehood.

And he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘al-Khasim’, which means one who is proficient at quarrelling and what is reprehensible is to argue with falsehood by removing the truth and establishing falsehood.

And Allaah (Jalla wa ‘Alaa) despises this type of person because his purpose is not to establish the truth, rather to love to overcome others with his arguments even though it is falsehood. And because a lot of excessive argumentation leads to disparaging the person. (And) because in most arguments, one of the parties is arguing with falsehood, and this is why it is prohibited.”

.

Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه is reported to have narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم Said:

من جادل في خصومة بغير علم ، لم يزل في سخط الله حتى ينزع

“Whoever argues without knowledge in a dispute, will remain in the Wrath of Allah until he abandons (his argument).”

[Ibn Abi Dunya, ‘Dham al-Gheebah wan-Nameemah’ 14, and ‘Abaad al-Lisaan’, 151 – Isnad is graded as da’eef by al-Araqi in ‘Takhreej al-Ihya’, 3/147 and al-Albani in ‘Da’eef al-Jaami’, 5541]

Despite the weak sanad of this particular hadeeth, its meaning remains proven and correct. Abu Hatim (in ‘Jarh wa Ta’deel’, 4/1/329) said there is an alternative witness to this hadeeth by way of Ibn Umar in a marfu’ form, which states:

ومن خاصم في باطل وهو يعلمه ، لم يزل في سخط الله حتى ينزع

“…and whoever argues in falsehood knowingly, will remain in the Wrath of Allah until he abandons (his argument).”

[This narration is found in Sunan Abi Da’wud, 3597; Musnad Ahmad, 7/204; al-Hakim, 2/27; al-Bayhaqi, 11122 and others. It has been graded as saheeh by al-Hakim (and ad-Dhahabi agreeing in his ‘Mahdhab’, 5/2211 and 7/3481); ibn Muflih in ‘Al-Adaab’, 1/58; al-Haytami al-Makki in ‘Az-Zawajir’, 1/248; Ahmad Shakir; al-Albani in ‘Saheeh al-Jaami’, 6196 and ‘Irwa’ al-Ghaleel’, 7/349; Muqbil al-Waadi’ in ‘Saheeh Musnad’, 768; and others]

Al-Adheemabadi commented in his valuable ‘Awn al-Ma’bood’ that “arguing in falsehood knowingly” refers to one who knows his argument (and view) is invalid, or knows that it is not true, or knows that his opponent is correct. He knows its falsity while insisting upon it being the truth…”

What should strike utmost fear into the heart of any discerning Muslim is the liability of being under the Wrath of Allah until the time one abandons his false argumentation and insistence upon it. The word ‘wrath’ appears more than twenty times in the Qur’an, mostly in relation to the Yahood and those who indulge in the most severe of crimes. Its inference becomes even more clear when Allah Said about mushrikeen and those who argued falsely with their Messengers:

كَذَلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا ۗ قُلْ هَلْ عِندَكُم مِّنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا ۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا تَخْرُصُونَ

“…Likewise belied those who were before them, (they argued falsely with Allah’s Messengers), till they tasted Our Wrath. Say: ‘Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie’.” [Al-Anaam, 148]

.

Jundub bin Abdullah رضي الله عنه narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

اقرءوا القرآن ما ائتلفت عليه قلوبكم ، فإذا اختلفتم فقوموا

“Read the Quran as long as your hearts are drawn close (in agreement) with each other (in respect to it), if there is disagreement (among you), then stand up (and leave).” [Saheeh al-Bukhari, 4773/6843 and others]

Ibn Hajar said in his ‘Fath al-Bari’ (4773) that this means any disagreement that may occur over any understanding (of the meaning) of the Qur’an, one should leave the situation. The purpose of dispersing from such a gathering is so as to not allow the differences to fester and cause enmity to arise between people and result in evil… It is not allowed to snarl at an opposing opinion so as not to cause grievance and dissent among people, (and remember the Words of Allaah): “O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble…” [Al-Ma’idah, 101]

If (valid) differences of views give rise to suspicion and dispute, this calls for separation and everyone is strongly advised not to indulge in disputation and argumentation about the Book of Allah. Ibn Katheer has further comments here

The following is a most profound incident found in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, which every Muslim needs to acquaint himself with:

خرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات يوم والناس يتكلمون في القدر، قال: فكأنما تفقأ في وجهه حب الرمان من الغضب، قال: فقال: ما لكم تضربون كتاب الله بعضه ببعض؟ بهذا هلك من كان قبلكم. قال فما غبطت نفسي بمجلس فيه رسول الله لم أشهده بما غبطت نفسي بذلك المجلس أني لم أشهده

“The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم came out and heard some people speaking about al-qadr (i.e. they were arguing over the issue of pre-destination and each of them using Ayat of the Qur’an to support their stance). One of them became angry and his face swelled up like a pomegranate. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘What is this you are striking the Book of Allah for? This (argumentation [and too much questioning]) was what destroyed those before you…”  [Musnad Ahmad, 6492; Ibn Maajah and others – graded as saheeh by Al-Albani]

The Qur’an was not revealed for the purpose of arguing over it, nor was this what the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was sent with nor ordered the Muslims with – that they should (perceiving) set one part of the Book of Allah against other parts or to debate and deliberate upon it without knowledge.

Our Salaf, from the Companions and those who came after them disliked debating and arguing at any length, and warned as ‘Abd-Allah ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه said:

باب شرك فتح على أهل الصلاة : التكذيب بالقدر ، فلا تجادلوهم فيجري شركهم على أيديكم

“The trap door (of evil) opened for people of Salat (i.e. Muslims) is: the denial (disbelief) in qadr, and that they quarrel so that (there is real risk of) shirk occurring on their hands.”

.

Our attitude should be as that of Hasan al-Basri, when a man came to him and said, “I wish to debate with you about the Deen.” Hasan replied: “I know my Religion. If you have lost your Religion go and look for it.” [Al-Laalakaa’i, ‘Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah’, 215; Ibn Battah, 586 and others]

Imam Shafi’i from his golden pieces of advice said:

إذا نطق السفيه فلا تجبه فخير من إجابته السكوت فإن كلمته فـرّجت عنـه وإن خليته كـمدا يمـوت

“If the fool* speaks, don’t respond to him as silence is the best answer (for him). If you (do) speak to him (then) you have supported him (i.e. his foolishness by giving him importance); and if you left him (without speaking/answering), then in anguish he dies.”

* Those without sense, wisdom or sincerity – who do not seek the truth, but rather want to perpetuate their nonsense and unnecessary arguments and wrangling.

.

See here also

.

May Allah allow patience and wisdom to prevail among the Muslims.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: