Out of fear of falling into the harmful

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه

.

Allaah سبحانه و تعالى Said in Al-Qur’an:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ

“O you who believe! Have Taqwah of Allaah as is His Right (to be feared).” [Aal-Imran, 102]

.

‘Atiyyah bin Urwa’ as-Sa’di رضي الله عنه narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

لا يبلغ العبد أن يكون من المتقين حتى يدع ما لا بأس به حذرا لما به البأس

“No servant will acquire the status of the Muttaqeen until he abandons what is harmless, out of caution (or fear) of falling into what is harmful.”

[Sunan Tirmidhi, 2451 (who classed it as ‘hasan ghareeb’); also narrated by Ibn Majah, 2/1409 [#4215]; Al-Hakim, ; Mu’jam al-Kabeer, 446; Bayhaqi, 5/335; Musnad ibn Abi Shaybah, 591 and others – graded as da’eef by al-Albani in ‘Da’eef Tirmidhi’ and ‘Da’eef ibn Majah’ 4977 – see also Tafseer ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Katheer, ‘Al-Baqarah’, 2]

.

1. In his valuable ‘Tuhfat al-Ahwadi’, #2451, al-Mubarakpuri commented about “acquiring the status of the Muttaqeen”:

المتقي في اللغة اسم فاعل من قولهم وقاه فاتقى والوقاية فرط الصيانة وفي الشريعة الذي يقي نفسه تعاطي ما يستحق به العقوبة من فعل وترك , وقيل التقوى على ثلاثة مراتب : ‏

“Al-Mutaqi in the (Arabic) language is a name for the one who takes precaution in safeguarding himself (from excessiveness), which the Shari’ah protects the self from pursuing (a likely penalty that may arise from it) through his act of leaving it. It is said that taqwah is built upon three levels”:

الأولى : التقوى عن العذاب المخلد بالتبري من الشرك , كقوله تعالى { وألزمهم كلمة التقوى   ‏
والثانية : التجنب عن كل ما يؤثم من فعل أو ترك حتى الصغائر عند قوم , وهو التعارف بالتقوى في الشرع والمعنى بقوله { ولو أن أهل القرى آمنوا واتقوا
والثالثة : أن يتنزه عما يشغل سره عن الحق ويقبل بشراشره إلى الله وهي التقوى الحقيقية المطلوبة بقوله تعالى : { اتقوا الله حق تقاته } والحديث وإن استشهد به للمرتبة الثانية فإنه يجوز أن ينزل على المرتبة الثالثة

And about “out of caution (and fear) of falling into what is harmful”, he said:

مفعول له أي خوفا من أن يقع قيما فيه بأس . قال الطيبي رحمه الله : قوله أن يكون ظرف يبلغ على تقدير مضاف أي درجة المتقين . قال المناوي : أي يترك فضول الحلال حذرا من الوقوع في الحرام

.

2. As-Sundi said that this means abandoning the harmless (even) where there is nothing wrong in what was being left, in replacement of what is good (or better)… (and leaving the harmless) out of habit for what is not conducive to one’s character – [see ‘Hashiyah as-Sundi ‘ala Ibn Majah’, 4215]

3. Speaking about deliberation in protecting oneself against harm, Ibn al-Qayyim said in his Fawa’id:

التقوى ثلاث مراتب
حمية القلب والجوارح عن الآثام والمحرمات
حميتها عن المكروهات
الحمية عن الفضول وعما لا يعنى . وقد كان السلف الصالح يتقون بعض المباحات خشية الوقوع في المحرمات , فيجعلون التقوى حائلا منيعا من الوقوع فيما حرم الله

“Tawqah has three levels:

i. Protection of the heart and limbs against sin and muharamaat (forbidden matters)

ii. Protection against the makruhaat (disliked/detestable matters).

iii. Protecting against curiosity and whatever does not concern you. And the righteous Salaf were cautious of permissible matters, for fear that they (could be led to) fall into the forbidden matters afterwards. So they made taqwah an impenetrable barrier from falling into that which Allaah has forbidden…”

.

4. Ibn Rajab mentioned that the Salaf would be greatly apprehensive of this Ayah:

إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

“Verily, Allaah accepts from those who are Al-Muttaqoon.” [Al-Ma’idah, 27]

Question: If we do not have taqwah, does this mean our actions are liable for rejection? If our actions are not achieving the desired results from prescribed acts (that increase one in taqwah) like fasting etc. then there is something fundamentally wrong with our priorities, and this concern alone should be sufficient to give any Muslim sleepless nights.

5. Likewise Allaah سبحانه و تعالى Said about that Qur’an, that it is:

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

“guidance for those who are Muttaqoon.” [Al-Baqarah, 2]

Again the question arises: Can the Qur’an guide those who have no taqwah; or is tawqah a pre-requisite for being guided by Allaah? One key ingredient of taqwah is ikhlas (pure sincerity), when one has ikhlas (whether a Muslim or a non-Muslim), it is a means by which Allaah opens up their hearts to receive guidance – And Allaah guides not the fasiqoon nor those who disbelieve nor those who plot betrayal.

.

6. Once we understand the inherent status of tawqah in Islam, it becomes profoundly clear the risks associated with having a casual attitude towards things that are considered permissible where there is no real need or purpose behind indulging in them. The above hadeeth provides a recommendation and a means to training the heart to become muttaqi – by constantly being on guard for any possibility of falling into a harm and/or sin. Aiming instead for a higher objective that instils the essence of tawqah within us, thereby becoming receptive of Allaah’s acceptance and mercy and grace.

And Allaah alone is the source of guidance.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: