Upon them is the curse

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه

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Abdullah bin Mughfal رضي الله عنه narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

الله الله في أصحابي ، لا تتخذوهم غرضا بعدي ، فمن أحبهم فبحبي أحبهم ، ومن أبغضهم فبغضي أبغضهم ، ومن آذاهم فقد آذاني ، ومن آذاني فقد آذى الله ، ومن آذى الله يوشك أن يأخذه

“Allaah, Allaah* My Companions! Do not make them targets (of slander etc.) after me! Whoever loves them, loves them by loving me. Whoever hates them, hates them by hating me. And whoever does (something to) hurt them, hurts me. And whoever does (something to) hurt me, (tries to) hurt Allaah. And whoever does (try to) hurt Allaah, (he) will be seized (by Allaah).”

[Sunan Tirmidhi, 3862, Musnad Ahmad 4/87 (with slight variation) – graded as hasan ghareeb by Tirmidhi and hasan by Ibn Hibban and Suyooti]

* A double invocation of Allaah’s Name signifies the seriousness of the matter

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1. Al-Manawi said in his explanation, said that:

الحث على تعظيم الصحابة وتقديرهم وإجلالهم واحترامهم، ومعرفة منزلتهم وسابقتهم وفضلهم، وإنزالهم منازلهم التي أنزلهم الله إياها، بالعدل والإنصاف، لا بالهوى والتعصب، والترضي عنهم، والحذر من عيبهم وتنقصهم

Thus the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم warned us with regards to his As-haab, to know their virtues and merits and true status. That they preceded everyone to Islam and their sacrifices and jihad with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and their preserving of the Deen and relaying it completely and in its pristine form to those who would follow them until the Last Day.

Allaah chose only the best of people to be his Companions and they will remain unparalleled in the history of the Ummah. Anyone wilfully making them a target of malice or blaspheming against them or reviling them or holding any amount of enmity or grudge against them, should understand this is major kufr, followed by a very real danger of falling outside the fold of Islam if they knowingly persist in such a behaviour.

Our love for them is due to our love for the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and the Prophet’s love for them. Whoever slights them has slighted the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and whoever slights the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم has slighted Allaah, Who will avenge the wrongdoers on behalf of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  and his Sahabah.

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Ibn ‘Abbaas and Anas bin Malik رضي الله عنهما reported that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

من سب أصحابي فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين

“Whoever abuses my Companions, upon them is the curse of Allaah, the Angels and the whole of mankind.”

[Mash’hoor narration (with slight variations), found in At-Tabarani, 3/174 and ‘Ad-Du’aa’, 1993; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, ‘Fada’il as-Sahabah’, 6; Al-Khalal, ‘As-Sunnah’, 830 and others – graded as hasan by Suyooti, Shawkani, Muhammad Jarullah and Al-Albani (see ‘Silsilat as-Saheehah’, 5/446, #2340)]

* The word سب has more than one meaning in Arabic and can also mean to swear, abuse, blaspheme etc.

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This hadeeth is a warning that insulting or cursing the Companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم is from the major sins. The word لعن (la’n) is usually translated as cursing but it has a far more profound meaning that this. It denotes departing or being expelled from all that is good; and it was said that this departing and expulsion was from Allaah Himself, thus depriving the one who is cursed of any hope. To further understand the significance of the word, please refer to ‘Lisan al-Arab’.

In ‘Muqa’ees al-Lugha’, there is an interesting note on this word that states:

اللام والعين والنون أصلٌ صحيحٌ يدلُّ على إبعادٍ وإطرادٍ ولَعَنَ اللهُ الشيطانَ: أبعدَه عن الخير والجَنّة

 “The Laam and the Ayn and the Noon (in La’na) show the proper root indicating universal prevention/exclusion, and the cursing of Shaytan by Allaah (who was) prevented from (all) the goodness and the Jannah.”

This word also appears over fifty times in the Qur’an and is associated with a number of category of people. Yet the combined curses of Allaah and the Angels and mankind is only mentioned twice in the whole Book. In Ayah 87 of Surat Aal-Imran, Allaah Said about the Dhalimoon and those “who disbelieved after their belief”: أُولَـٰئِكَ جَزَاؤُهُمْ أَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةَ اللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِي (“They are those whose recompense is that on them (is) the Curse of Allah, of the Angels and of all mankind.”) – This is the only Ayah after 2:161 (“those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers”) that mentions the collective curses of all three – signifying the severity of this type of combined curse which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم also used in the above hadeeth.

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The Salaf understood this matter well.  Ayoob Al-Sakhtiyani رحمه الله تعالى (d.130 AH) said:

من أحب أبا بكر فقد أقام الدين ومن أحب عمر فقد أوضح السبيل ، ومن أحب عثمان استنار بنور الله عز وجل ، ومن أحب عليا فقد أخذ بالعروة الوثقى ، ومن أحسن الثناء على أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقد برئ من النفاق ومن [ ينتقص ] أحدا منهم أو بغضه لشيء كان منه فهو مبتدع مخالف للسنة و [ السلف ] الصالح ، والخوف عليه أن لا يرفع له عمل إلى السماء حتى يحبهم جميعا ويكون قلبه لهم سليما

“Whoever loves Abu Bakr has upheld the Deen, whoever loves ‘Umar has made the way clear, whoever loves ‘Uthman is enlightened by the light of Allaah and whoever loved ‘Ali has taken the firmest handhold. Whoever speaks well of the Companions of the Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم is clear of hypocrisy. But whoever belittles any of them (or dislikes any one of them) for something they did, then he is a mubtadi’ (an innovating heretic), an opponent of the Sunnah and the Righteous (Predecessors), and it is feared that none of his deeds will be raised to the Heavens until he loves all of them and his heart is clear (of malice) towards them.” [Ibn Abi Zamaneen, ‘Usool as-Sunnah’, article 189]
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Anas ibn Malik رضي الله عنه narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

إن الله حجب التوبة عن كل صاحب بدعة حتى يدع بدعته

“Allaah will block (veil) the repentance of the companion of bid’ah (i.e. an innovator) until he leaves the innovation.”

[Tabarani, Mua’jam al-Kabeer; see also Ibn Majah in his Muqadimah, 50; Al-Bayhaqi in Shu’ab al-Iman, 8837 and others – Al-Haythami said: “Men (in the sanad) are saheeh…” Majma’ az-Zawa’id, 10/192; Al-Safirini graded the isnad as hasan in ‘Anwar as-Sunnah’, 1/203 (see also ‘Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tahreeb’, 1/54)]

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Yahya bin al-Mukhtar said I heard Bishr bin al-Harith say:

“I heard Fudayl ibn ‘Iyyad say: ‘It has reached me that Allaah, The Blessed and Most High, has barred repentance from the companion of bid’ah, and from (the worst of) the evil of the people of bid’ah are those who hate the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم.’ He then turned to me and said: ‘Make the firmest of your deeds with Allaah your love for the Companions of His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم; for (if you were then) to come to the standing of Judgement (on Yawmul Qiyamah) with sins like (the size of) the Earth, you would find Allaah’s Forgiveness for you; and if you come (on that Day) with (even) the smallest amount of hatred (or slander) towards them, no (amount of good) deed will benefit you.”

[Abu Bakr Al-Daynuri, ‘Al-Mujalasah wa-Jawahir al-‘Ilm’, 5/412, #2288]

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Imam at-Tahawi wrote in his ‘Aqeedah’:

أن نحب اصحاب الرسول صلي الله عليه وسلم ولا نفرق بين احد منهم ولا نتبرأمن احد منهم ونبغض من يبغضهم وبغير الخير يذكرهم ولا نذكرهم الا بخير وحبهم دين وايمان وبغضهم كفر ونفاق وطغيان

Refer also to:

– Ash-Shifa’ by Qadi ‘Iyad, chapter two on the ‘Necessity of Loving the Prophet
– Shama’il Tirmidhi’ and ‘Dala’il an-Nabbuwah’ of Bayhaqi.

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And Allaah Guides whom He Wills to the Straight Path.

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